Wednesday, December 9, 2015

Research Blog #10 Abstract and Bibilography

Abstract: This research paper is about the increasing prevalence of a culture where athletics in American universities are being prioritized over athletics. This skewed prioritization on the part of universities is a problem for both students and student athletes because the main purpose of going to college is to get a quality education that can allow one to live a better life and contribute to society. Unfortunately, for many student athletes, and the people who direct them, this is but an afterthought, and success on the playing field and even advancement to professional sports are the main goal. The perpetuation of this mindset causes several problems, such as massive expenditures on athletic related costs in the midst of cuts to academic programs, academic corruption, and prevalence of a psychological phenomenon called pluralistic ignorance, which in turn continues the cycle of skewed priorities in American universities. 

Works Cited

Armstrong, Kevin. "Rutgers' Kyle Flood Suspended 3 Games, Fined $50K." NY Daily News. 17 Sept. 2015. Web. 30 Nov. 2015.
Benford, Robert D. "THE COLLEGE SPORTS REFORM MOVEMENT: Reframing the “Edutainment” Industry." Sociological Quarterly 48.1 (2007): 1-28. Print.
Bozman, Carl S., et al. "Intangible and Tangible Value: Brand Equity Benefits Associated with Collegiate Athletics." International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship 16.4 (2015): 261-84. Print.
CARSON II, LOFTUS,C., and MICHELLE A. RINEHART. "The Big Business of College Game Day." Texas Review of Entertainment & Sports Law 12.1 (2010): 1-12. Print.
Comeaux, Eddie. "Rethinking Academic Reform and Encouraging Organizational Innovation: Implications for Stakeholder Management in College Sports." Innovative Higher Education 38.4 (2013): 281-93. Print.
Levine, Joshua, Sara Etchison, and Daniel M. Oppenheimer. "Pluralistic Ignorance among Student-Athlete Populations: A Factor in Academic Underperformance." Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning 68.4 (2014): 525-40. Print.
Lewin, Tamar. "At Many Top Public Universities, Intercollegiate Sports Come at an    Academic Price." The New York Times. The New York Times, 16 Jan. 2013. Web. 1 Dec. 2015.
Moye, Jim, and C. Keith Harrison. "Who Can A 'Baller' Trust? Analyzing Public University Response To Alleged Student-Athlete Misconduct In A Commercial And Confusing Environment." Texas Review Of Entertainment & Sports Law 3.1 (2002): 1. Academic Search Premier. Web. 27 Nov. 2015.
Panagos, Jack. "Interview of a D1 Athlete." Personal interview. 16 Nov. 2015.
SIMPLICIO, JOSEPH. "New Ideas that are Academically Sound are Good, those that       Bring in Money are Even Better." Education 131.3 (2011): 533-7. Print.
Suggs, Welch. "Making money—or not—on College Sports." New Directions for Institutional Research 2009.144 (2009): 19-31. Print.
Vedder, Richard. "Scoreboards vs Blackboards: Athletics' Influence in 'Academic' Institutions." Forbes. Forbes Magazine, 4 Nov. 2014. Web. 15 Nov. 2015.

Tuesday, November 24, 2015

Research Blog #9 Argument and Counter Argument

My argument for my paper is that American universities prioritize their athletics over academic. I will prove this by establishing that idea as a theoretical frame, as well the concept of pluralistic ignorance.
I will then discuss the reasons why colleges do that - money, notoriety, acclaim.
I will then discuss the effects of the prioritization such as academic corruption.
I will then discuss the effects on the students and student athletes.
I will then use my primary source as a counter argument because he believes that for the most part, athletic programs are concerned first and foremost with academic success as a precursor to sports.

Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Research Blog #8 Interview/Primary Source

For my primary source, i have interviewed one of my good friends, Jack Panagos, because he is a D1 golfer here at Rutgers. I learned about his opinions on many of the things i discuss in my paper. I will be using his interview as my counter argument because i found that he believes that for the most part, the first concern in any credible athletic department is toward academic success.
  "Our academic advisors are always on us about our grades and whenever I meet with my coach individually his first concern is how I am doing in school” (Panagos)

In regards to D1 football players at championship caliber schools - "  They are obviously focused on football because at that level it is such high stakes and it is almost like a business. But without academics they wouldn’t have a chance to compete so hopefully that is an ideal that they share as well” (Panagos).

Tuesday, November 10, 2015

Research Blog #7 Case

One main case that i will be making to help prove the argument of my paper will be the recent scandal regarding the suspension of Rutgers head football coach Kyle Flood. Flood was suspended for contacting the professor of one of his football players, attempting to convince him to give the player extra opportunities to pass, and even helped edit the paper of the player in question. I will be using this case to illustrate two parts of my argument. First, the fact that academic corruption is extremely prevalent in college sports. Second, Flood's actions are indicative of the fact that even here at Rutgers, some people involved in the athletic department prioritize athletics over academics. Flood made it clear that he is one of those people because he tried to use his influence to ensure that one of his players would remain eligible, despite the fact that based on his grades, he did not deserve to be. My research on this particular example of my case will be based on credible news source and possibly on first hand opinions from interactions with Rutgers students and faculty.

Research Blog #6 Visual

This visual is important because it illustrates the point of my paper. The point of my paper is that colleges prioritize athletics over academics. That point is illustrated by this visual because in most of the years displayed by this graph, the athletic department had a bigger budget than the school itself. This is an alarming statistic that should illuminate the fact that many colleges spend more money on sports than they do on educating students.

Tuesday, November 3, 2015

Literature Review #4

Pluralistic ignorance among student–athlete populations:
a factor in academic underperformance by Article by Joshua Levine 
Levine, Joshua, Sara Etchison, and Daniel M. Oppenheimer. "Pluralistic Ignorance among Student-Athlete Populations: A Factor in Academic Underperformance." Higher Education: The International Journal of Higher Education and Educational Planning 68.4 (2014): 525-40.print.
 This article is from an academic journal. It is about a phenomenon called Pluralistic ignorance in which the majority of members of a group privately share an ideal, but believe that the rest of the group share a different ideal, so publicly, the support the perceived norm rather than the actual norm. This is a problem because this perpetuates ideals that are not necessarily in the best interest of parties involved. It is basically a persons inner reaction to perceived peer pressure.
I c could not find any info on the author, but he seems knowledgeable on the subject. He seems to have some sort of familiarity with psychology, and also makes use of studies, statistics, and real life examples to illustrate and prove his points. 

Academic underperformance -  when student athletes do not pursue the academic courses of study that they are interested in because they believe that their peers are not interested in pursuing academics, so they choose easy majors and classes.
Negative stereotypes of student athletes - help perpetuate pluralistic ignorance.

“Pluralistic ignorance is a psychological phenomenon in which the majority of group members hold private views that differ from perceived norms” (Levine, 527). 
  “In order to fit in, individuals adopt public behaviors that align with the perceived norms; this reinforces those norms even though most members of the group do not privately endorse the norms. Pluralistic ignorance can cause the majority of individuals within a given group to believe, quite mistakenly, that they are in the minority. This miscalculation of social norms can inhibit and modify behavior to an astonishing extent” (Levine, 527)
  “In particular, reforming admissions or reducing practice time, while potentially useful in their own right, will not be successful if students feel that they need to engage in fewer scholastic activities so as to conform to group norms” (Levine, 528)
This source is helpful to me and my paper because it will be part of my theoretical framework. It will help me prove that universities prioritize athletics over academics and it will show the negative effects of that. 


Monday, October 26, 2015

Research Blog #5: Bibliography

"Academic Foul: Some Colleges Accused Of Helping Athletes Cheat." Weekend All Things Considered (2015): Literature Resource Center. Web. 20 Oct. 2015. Lapchick,

Funk, Gary D. Major Violation: The Unbalanced Priorities in Athletics and Academics. Champaign, IL: Leisure Press, 1991.

Horton, David. "Between A Ball And A Harsh Place: A Study Of Black Male
Community College Student-Athletes And Academic Progress." Community College
Review 43.3 (2015): 287-305. Academic Search Premier. Web. 20 Oct. 2015.

Richard Edward., and National Education Association of the United States. Pass to Play: Student Athletes and Academics. Washington, D.C.: NEA Professional Library, National Education Association, 1989.

Thelin, John R., Lawrence L. Wiseman, Association for the Study of Higher Education, and ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education. The Old College Try: Balancing Academics and Athletics in Higher Education. Washington, D.C.: George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development, 1989.

Gerdy, John R. The Successful College Athletic Program: The New Standard. Phoenix, Ariz.: Oryx Press, 1997.
Lapchick, Richard Edward., and Robert Malekoff. On the Mark: Putting the Student Back in Student-athlete. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1987.